In late summer and early autumn, agricultural exhibitions are usually held, where gardeners and summer residents have the opportunity to purchase seedlings of berry bushes and fruit trees to update or create their own garden.
Sometimes, when buying, gardeners are only interested in the name of the variety, the ripening period of its fruits and their taste.
Meanwhile, experienced summer residents know: in order for fruit trees to give the expected harvest, they need certain partners for pollination. And you must definitely ask the seller about this.
That this is very important, I was convinced from my own experience when I began to master my six hundred square meters. Then, on the occasion, I bought a felt cherry seedling. I planted him on the site. The plant pleased with beautiful corrugated leaves, bloomed a year later. Moreover, the flowers literally covered its flexible branches. Alas, this cherry almost did not set fruit. The tree grew, formed new branches, but there were no cherries. And it was then that I learned that felt cherries need pollinating neighbors.
I myself grew two small seedlings from the seeds and planted them on both sides of the first tree. When the young plants bloomed, I finally got to know the real taste of the felt cherry. And he gave this example so that novice gardeners were interested: these are self-fertile varieties or they need pollinators.
Experts know that some garden plants do not have problems with pollination - the flowers are pollinated even in a single specimen in the garden. These plants are berry bushes, quince, apricots and peaches.
With other plants, things are more complicated. For example, cherries and plums have self-pollinating varieties, or they are also called self-fertile (for cherry - these are Brunetka, Apukhtinsky, Griot and others), but there are also varieties that need cross-pollination, i.e. such varieties require another variety in the neighborhood that blooms at the same time.
For example, other pollinating varieties are suitable for the well-known Vladimirskaya cherry variety, such as Amorel rozovaya, Griot Moskovsky, Lyubskaya, Turgenevka and others. At the same time, the Vladimirskaya variety itself can serve as a good pollinator for most other cherry varieties. Lubskaya and Shubinka varieties are also good pollinators for self-fruitless cherry varieties.
For plum varieties that require cross-pollination, Skorospelka Krasnaya, Vengerka Moskovskaya and others are good pollinators. By the way, the plum varieties Vengerka Moskovskaya and Vengerka ordinary, Iskra, Pamyat Timiryazev are self-fertile.
Therefore, when buying varieties of cherries or plums, it is imperative to ask: does this variety need a particular pollinator variety?
A bountiful harvest of apple, pear, and also cherry depends on the availability of a suitable pollinator in the close environment (maybe not even in your garden, but in your neighbor's).
Apple trees usually have a large selection of varieties for pollination. As a rule, several different varieties grow in the garden, and among them there is a variety that blooms at the same time as the new variety, pollinating it. Experts call the well-known varieties Antonovka ordinary and Cinnamon striped the best pollinating varieties.
For varieties of pears and cherries planted in the garden, you also need to plant a pollinator that is suitable for them. For example, for the Leningradskaya Late Cherry variety, suitable pollinator varieties are needed, such as Tyutchevka, Iput, Michurinka, Bryanskaya varieties. The same pollinator varieties are also suitable for sweet cherries Bryanskaya pink, as well as the Ovstuzhenka variety.
As you know, pears need more care and warmth than apple trees. They also need a permanent, suitable pollinator, since the pear is pollinated with the pollen of only another pear tree. It is for this reason that the owners of single pear trees are left without a crop.
For example, the Lada variety, successfully growing in the North-West and known to many gardeners, is well pollinated by the Chizhovskaya and Severyanka varieties. Another popular pear variety, Lyubimitsa Yakovleva, is well pollinated by another Duchess summer variety. By the way, the Lada and Chizhovskaya varieties are partially self-fertile varieties, as well as the Pamyati Yakovlev variety.
Other plants, which have become widespread in gardens and dachas in recent years, must also be required for themselves. These are dioecious plants sea buckthorn, actinidia kolomikta. Their males only bloom and serve as pollinators, and the berries ripen on females. Practice has shown that for sea buckthorn it is enough to have one male plant for eight female plants in the garden, and for actinidia kolomikta - one male plant for 4-5 female plants.
Gardeners and summer residents should understand that even by creating the most favorable conditions for their fruit plants, you may not get a harvest. And all because they did not provide them with comfortable pollinating neighbors. This must be remembered already at the time of purchasing seedlings for the future garden.
Photo by Olga Rubtsova
The garden is a source of vitamins. It's delicious and healthy. Already these qualities are enough to acquire fruit trees and berry bushes. But I also want the garden to be beautiful. To amaze the imagination. To make the neighbors jealous! And it is not at all necessary for this to buy exotic plants that are difficult to care for - even classic species can be masterpieces.
The fashion for standard forms of fruit and ornamental shrubs came to Russia from Europe and immediately won the hearts of many gardeners. This method of cultivation was known back in the 19th century and is now becoming more and more popular in summer cottages.
Standard shrubs are miniature trees with a spherical or weeping crown. Such a shrub can be either self-rooted or grafted. The spherical forms of the shrub can be used to decorate the front areas of the site or to equip the alleys. Weeping ones are planted next to water bodies or in playgrounds.
The formation of a standard form can be used in many crops, both decorative and fruit. In ornamental gardening, a panicle hydrangea or a bubbly tree in the form of a small tree looks great. Such shrubs are very beautiful during flowering, and their unusual shape will resemble the original "long-flowering bouquet".
Among fruit crops, currants and gooseberries are most often used to form a standard form.
So why are these shrub shapes so good?
They are compact. Thanks to the stem, fruit bushes do not take up much space, which allows them to be used even in small gardens. In a place free from branches, you can sow or plant vegetable crops.
It is convenient to look after them. And the percentage of berry spoilage is minimal, since the berries do not touch the ground.
They get sick less. Their branches are located high from the soil surface, so the plants are less sick and are not damaged by pests, which, in turn, reduces the number of chemical treatments.
They are very beautiful. Currants or gooseberries in the form of a small tree are a real work of art!
When planning a summer cottage or a personal plot, many amateur gardeners are faced with a difficult choice, on what to concentrate their efforts, what to give preference to - an orchard, berry plantings or vegetable beds?
The problem is that the efficiency of using each square meter of a garden plot directly depends on what crops will be grown on it. Take fruit trees, for example. Depending on the strength of growth and rootstock, they must be planted at a distance of 1.5 to 4 m from each other. If you carry out simple calculations, it will become obvious that for planting even one seedling of each fruit crop, more than one hundred square meters of land will be required! But I also want to have a certain variety of varieties that differ in terms of fruit ripening, their color, taste, etc. A reasonable question arises: how to act in such a situation? How to use the available garden area in the most optimal way?
An excellent solution to this problem can be the cultivation of fruit trees, on which several varieties of one fruit crop are grafted at once. Such trees are often referred to as "multi-cultivar" or "family" trees. And then there is the wonderful term "tree-garden", which very accurately emphasizes the main feature of such plants.
From a practical point of view, "multi-varietal" trees have a number of undoubted advantages.
Save space. They are ideal for creating small gardens, as they make it possible to harvest various varieties of fruit crops in a small area. One "multi-varietal" tree is enough to get the fruits of summer, autumn or winter ripening period.
Allows you to get a stable harvest. For example, if some of the varieties grafted on a "multi-varietal" tree, due to the frequency of their fruiting, "rest", all food goes to other varieties, thereby significantly increasing the size and quality of their fruits.
In addition, their yield is higher due to cross-pollination - and it occurs within one crown.
Very beautiful. Imagine an apple tree on which red, yellow and bright green fruits of various shapes, sizes and ripening times ripen at the same time. Such a tree looks truly mesmerizing.
In the case of stone fruit, the situation is even more interesting. The fact is that all stone fruits belong to the same biological genus, and therefore are well compatible with each other when vaccinated. So do not be surprised that the same tree can delight its owners with the fruits of plum, cherry-plum, and even apricot.
When creating "multi-varietal" trees, it is imperative to take into account the strength of growth, winter hardiness and other important characteristics of each variety, as well as the compatibility of varieties with each other. The varieties grafted on the same tree should not only be well compatible with the stock, but also have similar biological parameters, which will contribute to the uniform and full development of plants, their friendly flowering and abundant fruiting.
Live in harmony with nature while enjoying your beautiful garden. And always remember that you can also grow a real miracle in the garden!
Trees and shrubs: list of works
To stimulate the laying of fruit buds for the next year, apply foliar dressing to all fruit trees with a solution of urea - 50 g per 10 liters of water.
Treatments against pests and diseases on fruit trees and shrubs should be stopped at least a week before harvest so that no chemicals remain on the fruits.
To make traps for wasps and hornets, it is enough to cut the bottle into 2 parts and insert the upper part into the lower one with the neck down. For bait, you need to pour any sweet liquid with a strong enough smell. Arriving at the smell and getting inside, wasps and hornets drown in liquid, unable to fly up.
For abundantly fruitful trees, you need to install strong supports. At the upper ends, it is advisable to make a fork into which the propped branch will enter. The lower end of the support should easily enter the soil.
In July, the second period of sap flow begins and you can graft fruit crops by budding.
By the end of July, it is advisable to reduce watering of young plants so that the wood can ripen for winter.
Ornamental shrubs with large inflorescences or long flowering require annual feeding. Until the end of July, you can carry out foliar dressing with a fertilizer solution.
Works in the garden: list of works
Harvest the beans when most of the pods turn yellow, but the peas, on the contrary, while the shutters are still green and juicy, but already filled with well-formed grains - about two weeks after flowering. If the leaves are lightened or covered with a "mesh", the peas are overripe.
Harvest cucumbers frequently, about every other day, to prevent overgrowth and stimulate the formation of new ovaries. Abundant watering is required after each harvest, and once every two weeks - feeding with a solution of mullein infusion or complex fertilizer. Cucumbers are poured at night, so on the eve of harvesting, it is better to pour them with warm water. In cloudy weather, cucumbers can be harvested less often. The main rule is that you need to remove not only high-quality cucumbers that have reached normal sizes, but also ugly, hooked and overripe ones. They should not be left on the plants.
At the beginning of July, you can start harvesting early ripening varieties of white cabbage. Heads of cabbage of early varieties are easily cracked if overstretched.
In order for the onion bulbs to ripen and store better, watering should be reduced to a minimum, and completely stopped in the third decade of July. Rake off the soil from the bulbs so that they are better illuminated by the sun, and it is better to bend the plant feathers to the ground.
The garlic is ready for harvest in the second half of July, when the lower leaves begin to dry out and the tops of the leaves begin to turn yellow. You should not be late in harvesting, otherwise the bulbs will disintegrate and lose keeping quality. If the weather is dry, the dug garlic can be left to dry for a week before storing it in the garden. In bad weather, harvest the garlic to ripen under a canopy.
In the middle of the month, zucchini, squash, zucchini are ready for harvesting. Harvest the fruits at the age of 8-10 days so that the seeds do not have time to coarse. Carefully cut the fruits with a knife, being careful not to damage the plant, along with the stalk.
Early potatoes, for use in summer, can be selectively harvested when the tops begin to turn yellow. Dig up the bushes carefully, carefully tear off large tubers from the stolons, then cover the bushes with soil. As a result, some of the roots remain intact and the plants will not fade.
For better ventilation in tomatoes, remove all leaves up to the first formed flower cluster.Tie tall varieties of tomato to stakes (loop).
In the third decade of July, for tomatoes in open ground, you need to pinch the tops, remove non-fruiting branches, remove large and medium brown and green fruits for ripening. It is advisable to pinch off the flowers and buds - they are unlikely to have time to bear fruit.
Immediately after the end of fruiting, remove all whiskers on garden strawberry plants (if they are not needed to rejuvenate the plantation), loosen the aisles, spill abundantly and feed the bushes with mullein infusion solution, urea (20 g per bucket of water) and superphosphate (30 g per bucket).
The location of fruit and berry crops in the garden. Fruit and berry plants in the garden can suppress each other. Both their branches and roots can also compete. Therefore, when choosing their location, one must bear in mind the peculiarities of the growth of crops so that they can develop comfortably.
The location of fruit and berry crops in the garden
Too spreading bushes and trees will interfere with the development of other specimens. In this regard, when disembarking, you should maintain a distance, taking into account the characteristics of growth.
The roots of plants keep them in the ground and are responsible for nutrition, accumulation of nutrients and water, for a comfortable existence in hot and cold weather. The root system begins to form as soon as the seed germinates and develops throughout the life of the plant. Most of the fruit crops have suction-type roots.
If during the life of a tree the roots not only grow, but also die off. Also, during the entire growing season, about a million roots die off.
The location of fruit and berry crops in the garden
Given such an active development of the underground part of plants, they can interfere with the development of other specimens located nearby. However, such competition should not be allowed. Therefore, crops can be planted next to each other, if their roots are at different levels, then they will not compete.
If it is possible to combine large fruit trees with deep roots, if with berry bushes with a shallow root system.
In addition, one more significant nuance should be taken into account - the accumulation of pests and peculiar diseases. If, as a result, different types of fruit crops have different pathogens.
The location of fruit and berry crops in the garden
If, over time, pathogenic microbes can accumulate in the soil. In this regard, it is necessary to take into account which crops were grown in this area of the soil earlier. So, you should not plant new raspberries where the old one has grown before for many years.
When disembarking, you should choose a place that will correspond to the characteristics of the culture. For example, you can swap different fruit and berry plants. If after the plum it is permissible to plant a pear, and where the cherry was previously - an apple tree.
As a result, fruit trees should not be replaced by alder, willow or sedge. But you can plant them where maple, wild rose, wild pear previously grew. However, if fruit and berry crops tend to develop the same parasites and diseases. Therefore, if with the disease of one specimen, there is a threat of infection of another.
The location of fruit and berry crops in the garden